Mitochondria and Cellular Energy
Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. They are essentially cells within a cell. Mitochondria convert oxygen and sugar into ATP energy molecules. Metabolism, or cellular respiration, takes place within mitochondria. Without the generation of ATP energy molecules, we would not have the energy to think or breathe, let alone walk.
Each cell has anywhere from one hundred mitochondria to 5000 mitochondria per cell. High energy dependent tissues, like the liver, brain, and heart, have the most mitochondria per cell; 2000, 3000, and 5000 mitochondria per cell type, respectively.
Without ATP, not one cellular function could take place. Micronutrients could not be brought into cells. Proteins could not be synthesized, let alone function. DNA could not be duplicated, nor transcribed to make proteins. Muscles could not contract. Nerves could not conduct electrical signals. Without ATP all life stops.
As with cells, mitochondria have a phospholipid bilayer membrane with electrical polarities. It is along the inner mitochondrial membrane where ATP is synthesized by electrons being passed along what is called the electron transport chain.
To make ATP energy molecules, first glucose is broken down and converted to pyruvic acid. Then within mitochondria, pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl-CoA, which via the Krebs cycle (or citric acid cycle), produce a few ATP molecules, as well as several NADH molecules. NADH is then used to pass high energy electrons along the mitochondrial inner membrane’s enzymes that make up the electron transport chain. This ultimately generates many ATP energy molecules.
When the electrical homeostasis of the mitochondrial membranes are disrupted, the electron transport chain is unable to pass along electrons effectively to create ATP. Damaged, or destabilized mitochondrial membranes, in which the electrical homeostasis is lost, causes a drop in ATP production, which results in less energy for the cell to function. The cell is unable to release toxic metabolites effectively, which causes additional cellular damage and electrical impedance.
With an increase in toxic metabolites, oxidative stress increases, followed by inflammation. With inflammation there is an increase in electrical impedance, causing cellular electrical dysfunction, and a decreased ability for the cells to communicate with each other. Inflammation also causes pain, as well as a reduced ability for tissues to heal.
Thermal Scan Before and After Electro-Equiscope®
Thermography reveals a decrease of inflammation after a single 30 minute electro-therapy session with the Electro-Equiscope®.
Please watch the video below to learn more about how the Electro-Equiscope works, as well as to hear from several medical doctors and others who use and endorse this device.
Accelerated Healing with The Electro-Equiscope®
Disease states and injuries involve the loss of membrane electrical homeostasis, which in turn leads to a loss of the ability to adequately take in and utilize micronutrients and expel toxic metabolites. The loss of cellular and mitochondrial membrane function is due to the loss of membrane structural integrity.
The loss of electrical polarity of the cellular and mitochondrial phospholipid bilayer membranes leads to a separation of the phospholipid bilayer. The cell membranes crenate, or crinkle, and the membrane proteins, enzymes, and ion channels lose their ability to function normally.
The Electro-Equiscope® scans the tissue for electrical disruption in the membranes. The device finds and remembers the areas of injury, which is detected due to electrical impedance. Having found impedance, the device then deposits an electrical charge in the exact frequency and amperage needed to restore electrical membrane potential. This reading and treating the tissue happens at 1000 times per second.
The restoration of cellular and mitochondrial membrane electrical homeostasis, and therefore proper functioning, occurs within seconds. Oxidative stress and inflammation is reduced within minutes. As a result, people usually notice a significant reduction in pain by the end of an electro-therapy session.
With the Electro-Equiscope® restoring cells and mitochondria back to electrical homeostasis, more ATP energy molecules can be generated, and the cells can effectively bring in micronutrients, synthesize proteins, and repair damage. The cells are then able to function at their optimum. Healing of injuries and disease states can occur rapidly when cells and mitochondria function optimally, and have the proper micronutrients to do so.
How long the restored electrical homeostasis remains after an electro-therapy session is unknown. Some disease states and injuries are significant, and electrical homeostasis is lost within hours or days after the electro-therapy session. However while electrical homeostasis lasts, accelerated healing takes place.
Usually a person who has chronic pain, injury, or disease state, requires a series of electro-therapy sessions over the course of several days to weeks. The more closely the sessions are done, the better electrical homeostasis can be restored and maintained, and the faster healing can happen. It is important to complement electro-therapy treatment with the proper spectrum of high quality, bio-available nutritional supplements (nutraceuticals), as optimal healing cannot take place without the critical micronutrients.
The Electro-Equiscope® actually improves the cell’s ability to utilize micronutrients. Therefore, ones quality vitamin and mineral supplement nutraceuticals actually become more effective with this electro therapy.
How Does the Electro-Equiscope® Differ From Other Modalities?
Most energy-based therapeutic devices, such as Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Field (PEMF), Deep Tissue Laser Therapy, and micro-current devices, such as the Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) device, bombard tissues and cells in a uni-directional method, without any feedback for correction based upon tissue response. They also do not deliver a charge at the trillionth of an amp– the amperage level at which ion channels and phospholipid bilayer membranes function.
The TENS unit inhibits pain by “over-charging” the nerve; bombarding it with electricity, which shuts down conductance. The Electro-Equiscope® does not shut down nerve conductance. It reduces inflammation and restores electric homeostasis, reducing pathology that leads to pain. The TENS unit does not accelerate healing, as does the Equiscope®.
The Equiscope® scans and measures impedance within areas of injury or disease, and delivers the appropriate amperage charge based upon algorithms designed to restore cellular membrane potential and homeostasis. Again, this process of reading and treating at the cellular level occurs at 1000 times per second. No other device interfaces with the body in a bi-directional manner to decipher abnormal tissue response, and deliver an electrical charge to correct electrical membrane homeostasis for accelerated healing and reduction of pain.
How Does The Electro-Equiscope® Work?
The Electro-Equiscope® device has the same computer chip technology as used in missile guidance systems, which means it is able to scan and receive information from the body’s tissues, identify and remember areas of electrical impedance, and deliver the appropriate electrical charge, as low as a pico-Ampere, which is a trillionth of an amp, to restore electrical homeostasis. A pico-amp is the level of electrical conductance at which cell membranes and ion channels function.
The charge delivered by Equiscope® re-establishes cellular and mitochondrial membrane electrical homeostasis, resulting in normal cellular and mitochondrial function.
The electrical homeostasis of cell and mitochondrial membranes determines the ability of the cells and mitochondria to function effectively, and ultimately determines the health status of tissues. Cellular and mitochondrial dysfunction leads to oxidative stress and inflammation, which can result in fatigue, pain, as well as disease states.
In 1991, a Nobel prize was awarded to Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann who discovered that ion channels function at a pico-ampere, that is, a trillionth of an amp.
“It has long been known that there is a rapid ion exchange over the cell membrane, but Neher and Sakmann were the first to show that specific ion channels actually exist. To elucidate how an ion channel operates it is necessary to be able to record how the channel opens and closes. This appeared elusive since the ionic current through a single ion channel is extraordinarily small.”
“The two German cell physiologists Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann have together developed a technique that allows the registration of the incredibly small electrical currents (amounting to a picoampere – 10-12A) that passes through a single ion channel.”
This is the level at which the Electro-Equiscope® is able to deliver a charge for restoring electrical conductance for proper function of the phospholipid membrane and the ion channels.
The prize-winning research found that cells have between 30 – 40 different ion channels that accept outside electrons, and each channel only accepts certain frequencies. Researchers also proved that after the cells are stimulated with electrical current in the pico amp range, they will have a higher capacitance over time, and as a result will be healthier.
With a TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation) device, operating in the milli-amp range, the cells ended up with less charge than prior to the treatment. That is, they had a decrease ability to function, and therefore were less healthy after treatment with the TENS unit than before the treatment.
None other than the Electro-Equiscope® is able to deliver such low, cellular-level amperage, to improve cellular and mitochondrial membrane conductance, and therefore normalize cellular function and health.
The cell and mitochondrial membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer; that is a double layer of molecules made up of lipids and proteins. Various types of proteins in the phospholipid bilayer serve various functions, for example, insulin receptors and ion channels, among others.
The cell’s phospholipid bilayer membrane has positive and negative polarities, similar to a magnet. For the most part, a positive charge runs along the outer membrane, and a negative charge runs along the inner membrane. The charge helps hold the bilayer together, and allows normal functioning of the membrane. Any disruption in these charges destabilizes the plasma membrane’s electrical polarities. Destabilization of electrical homeostasis affects the function of the plasma membrane, the membrane proteins, and the ion channels.
There are many micronutrients and hormones that need to be brought into the cell for proper cellular metabolism and function. In addition, toxic metabolites need to be expelled, otherwise a disease state will occur.
Ion channels are among the proteins that allow passage of micronutrients to enter the cell. However, they are not passive portholes in the cell membrane. They actively open and close, allowing molecules to traverse the membrane barrier. They are able to function due to a very small electrical current that is independent of the sodium-potassium pump.
When the cell membrane is damaged, as with injury or disease states, the electrical polarity homeostasis of the membrane is disrupted. Cell membranes, including cell membrane proteins and ion channels, depend upon electrical homeostasis to be able to properly transport micronutrients and toxic metabolites into and out of the cell, respectively. The same applies to the mitochondrial bilayer membranes.